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Innovating energy solutions: Research and development highlights

Research and development highlights

ExxonMobil has remained a leader in energy technology throughout its 135-year history. With a commitment to fundamental science and innovation unmatched in our industry, we invest about $1 billion a year in R&D.

We continue to advance a range of technologies to help meet growing demand for energy while also reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with energy use. Our in-house research portfolio includes biofuels, carbon capture and storage, breakthrough energy-efficiency processes, natural gas technologies, advanced energy-saving materials and environmental life cycle assessments. We also work with leading research and technology companies, national labs and universities.

Our commitment to reducing emissions doesn’t stop in the research laboratory. Since 2000, ExxonMobil has spent approximately $8 billion to develop and deploy lower-emission energy solutions across our operations.

Algae and other advanced biofuels

ExxonMobil is actively researching biofuels made from algae. Algae naturally produce lipids that can be turned into a renewable, lower-emission fuel for transportation. The challenge is doing so economically and at scale, moving this technology from the petri dish to the fuel tank. ExxonMobil and Synthetic Genomics Inc. continue to make progress in identifying and enhancing algae strains capable of high lipid production while maintaining desirable growth rates. And because the manufacturing processes for algae biofuels and today’s transportation fuels are similar, algae biofuels could be processed in existing refineries to supplement supplies of conventional gasoline, diesel and other fuels.

  • Our broad portfolio of advanced biofuels research also includes biofuels derived from cellulosic biomass. We have an agreement with Renewable Energy Group Inc. to study the production of biodiesel by fermenting cellulosic sugars from sources such as agricultural waste.

  • Advanced, or second-generation, biofuels offer the possibility of achieving significant GHG reductions while also minimizing the impact on land, fresh water and food supplies compared with first-generation biofuels.

Can algae biofuels be the lower-emission fuel of tomorrow?

The biofuels used around the world today are largely derived from agricultural crops; sugar cane and corn are used to make ethanol, while biodiesel is made from vegetable oils like soy. Unlike these first-generation biofuels, algae could provide a renewable fuel source that does not compete with supplies of food or fresh water. Algae also can consume carbon dioxide (CO2) and have the potential to be produced on a large scale.

From production to combustion, here are seven important reasons why we think the answer could be yes. Find out why this renewable energy source, which can be grown at scale on a limited amount of land, is so promising.

  • Algae consumes CO2

    In addition to producing algae, production sites could also act as carbon capture projects.

  • Lower-emission fuel

    On a life cycle basis, algae biofuels emit about half as much GHGs as petroleum-derived fuel.   

  • High yield

    Each acre of algae yields more than 2,000 gallons (7,570 liters) of fuel. Compare that to 650 gallons (2,460 liters) per acre for palm oil and 50 gallons (190 liters) per acre for soybean oil.  

  • Year-round harvest

    Unlike other feedstocks, such as corn, which is harvested only once a year, algae can be harvested repeatedly throughout the year.

  • Food production

    Algae can be cultivated on land unsuitable for other purposes with water that can’t be used for food production.

  • Water purifier

    Algae can be grown in wastewater and industrial effluent, and can actually purify polluted water while simultaneously producing energy-rich biofuels.

  • Engine ready

    Algae-derived diesel can be pumped into existing diesel automobiles without making major changes to car engines and infrastructure.

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Natural gas technology

Natural gas emits up to 60 percent fewer GHGs than coal for power generation, and is an ideal source of reliable power while also supplementing intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. It also is an abundant and versatile fuel, capable of powering utilities, homes and transportation. Recent advances in production technologies – many developed by ExxonMobil – have unlocked vast new supplies of gas in North America that previously were uneconomic to produce. ExxonMobil is the largest natural gas producer in the U.S.

  • Increased use of natural gas is a major reason why energy-related CO2 emissions from the U.S. power sector are down 15 percent since 2010, and at levels not seen since the early 1990s.

  • ExxonMobil also is a leader in liquefied natural gas (LNG) technology that is bringing more of this cleaner-burning fuel to countries that need it.

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Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process by which CO2 that otherwise would be emitted into the atmosphere is captured, compressed and injected underground for permanent storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has recognized CCS as essential to meeting global emissions-reduction goals.

  • ExxonMobil remains a leader in CCS technology. Our capacity is among the industry’s largest, with a working interest in about one-fourth of the world’s CCS capacity. In 2016, we captured 6.3 million tonnes of CO2 for storage – equivalent to switching from coal to gas to meet the electricity needs of about 1 million U.S. homes.

  • We are conducting proprietary, fundamental research to develop breakthrough CCS technologies, with an aim to reduce the complexity and cost of this important technology, while increasing its efficiency.

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Fuel cell technology

ExxonMobil is working with FuelCell Energy Inc. to explore an exciting new possibility: using carbonate fuel cells to more economically capture CO2 emissions from gas-fired power plants. Existing processes for capturing CO2 emissions consume energy, which increases costs; but carbonate fuel cells can produce electricity while they capture and concentrate CO2 streams. As a result, these fuel cells could significantly lower the cost of CCS, thereby bringing this breakthrough technology closer to widespread use.

  • Carbonate fuel cell technology could make CCS more affordable for power plants, which according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are the single largest source of GHG emissions.

  • In 2016, FuelCell Energy and ExxonMobil signed a joint agreement that will allow scientists from both companies to work collaboratively and further develop this emissions-saving technology.

How do fuel cells capture CO2?

Energy innovators ExxonMobil and FuelCell Energy are collaborating on solving a big problem: how to capture CO2 more efficiently on a large scale. The technology we're working on uses fuel cells to separate CO2 from the exhaust stream of a power plant, making the CO2 easier to capture and pipe underground. While still in early development, this process could vastly reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. It also has the potential to dramatically reduce the costs of CCS, creating a pathway for its widespread use around the world.

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Chemicals process breakthrough

ExxonMobil and Georgia Tech have developed a potentially revolutionary “reverse osmosis” technology that could significantly reduce GHGs associated with plastics manufacturing by using a molecular filter – rather than energy and heat – to perform a key step in the plastic-making process. If brought to an industrial scale, this breakthrough could reduce the industry’s global annual CO₂ emissions by up to 45 million tonnes.

  • Demand for auto parts, housing materials, electronics and other products made from plastics and other petrochemicals continues to grow. Rising U.S. natural gas production has boosted supplies of ethane, a natural gas liquid raw material used to make plastics, enabling investment in U.S. chemical manufacturing and exports.

  • Improving industrial energy efficiency and reducing emissions are part of ExxonMobil’s mission to meet the world’s needs while minimizing environmental impacts.

How does this breakthrough work?

Reverse osmosis has the potential to dramatically reduce the amount of energy required in plastics manufacturing. The technology employs a molecular-level filter – the molecules needed to produce plastics pass through; the others are recycled back into the process. This separation of molecules is a critical step in the production of plastics, but one that currently requires a lot of thermal energy. Because reverse osmosis works at room temperature, it may one day replace existing separation technology with a much less energy-intensive option.

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Advanced products

ExxonMobil develops and produces a range of advanced products that reduce GHG emissions and improve sustainability. These include resilient, lightweight automotive plastics that reduce overall vehicle weight and advanced tire technologies that help maintain optimal tire pressure – both of which make vehicles more fuel-efficient.

  • ExxonMobil also produces lightweight plastic packaging materials for everything from food to electronics. Lighter packaging means less transportation-related energy use and GHGs. Plastic packaging also helps extend the shelf life of fresh food by days or even weeks, improving safety and reducing food waste.

  • Our high-performance lubricants – used not just in cars and trucks, but in more than 40,000 wind turbines worldwide – improve sustainability because they need replacing less frequently, reducing the volume of used oil that needs to be disposed of or recycled.


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Life cycle assessments

A product’s environmental impact extends beyond its manufacturing and use; it also includes the acquisition of raw materials used to make the product, as well as its transport and disposal. In other words, a product’s estimated environmental impact should reflect its entire life cycle. ExxonMobil uses in-house experts and tools to conduct environmental life cycle assessments of emerging products and activities. In doing so, we are able to assess which technologies have the potential to deliver the game-changing results required to transition the energy system to lower-emission solutions.

  • ExxonMobil also collaborates with researchers at universities to advance the science of life cycle assessments. Additionally, in recent years, we have developed new approaches to quantifying environmental impacts associated with energy systems and published our findings in prestigious peer-reviewed journals.

  • ExxonMobil continues to develop technologies that reduce carbon emissions. For example, we produce a range of advanced products – such as lightweight plastic packaging materials – that help manufacturers reduce energy use, emissions and waste.


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University research collaborations

In addition to in-house research, ExxonMobil works with approximately 80 universities globally to explore next-generation energy technologies. We are a member of the MIT Energy Initiative, which supports advanced energy research. We have a collaboration with Princeton University in fields including solar and battery technology, and an agreement with the University of Texas to study carbon storage and other technologies.

  • ExxonMobil was a founding member of the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University, which seeks to develop game-changing breakthroughs that could lead to lower GHG emissions and a less carbon-intensive global energy system.

  • Other collaborations range from understanding the impacts of black carbon and aerosols (University of California, Riverside) to the conversion of cellulosic sugars to fuels (University of Wisconsin).

How is ExxonMobil fueling future energy discoveries?

Every day, ExxonMobil works with academic institutions around the world to research and develop new solutions to the world’s energy challenges. Our work includes everything from researching advances in materials science and carbon storage to understanding wind and solar energy. These collaborative relationships with colleges and universities fuel new discoveries and empower advanced energy research both in focused, short-term projects and multiyear programs.

University research collaborations

Beijing University of Chemical Technology
California Institute of Technology
Carnegie Mellon University
Case Western Reserve University
Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
City College of New York
College of William and Mary
Colorado School of Mines
Cornell University 
Delft University of Technology
Drexel University
Duke University
Dutch Polymer Institute
Florida State University
George Mason University
Georgia Institute of Technology
Heriot-Watt University 
Imperial College London
Jacobs University Bremen
Jiangsu University
Joseph Fourier University
Louisiana State University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Michigan State University
Montana State University
Moscow State University
Nanyang Technological University
New York University Abu Dhabi
Newcastle University
North Carolina State University
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Pohang University of Science and Technology 
Princeton University
Purdue University
Qatar University
Rice University
Sichuan University
South China Institute of Technology
Stanford University
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University at Galveston
Tsinghua University
University College Dublin
University of Alberta
University of Bristol
University of British Columbia 
University of Calgary
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Irvine
University of California, Riverside
University of California, San Diego
University of California, Santa Barbara
University of Cambridge
University of Delaware
University of Florida
University of Hawaii
University of Houston
University of Illinois at Chicago 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Leeds
University of Massachusetts Amherst
University of Miami
University of Michigan
University of Minnesota
University of Mons
University of North Texas
University of Notre Dame
University of Oklahoma
University of St. Thomas
University of Southern Mississippi
University of Stockholm
University of Strasbourg
University of Texas at Austin
University of Texas at El Paso
University of Tulsa
University of Vermont
University of Washington
University of Wisconsin
University of Wyoming
Utrecht University
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Vrije Universiteit Brussel 
Western Michigan University

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